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  International Research

As a global leader in long-term research and monitoring acitvities, the U.S. LTER Network has established linkages with existing and developing domestic long-term ecological programs, as well as similar programs around the world. These relationships range from exchanges at the individual scientist and site research program levels to participation in international meetings to global-scale research planning and collaboration.

The H.J. Andrews LTER has been actively engaged in international LTER work, from active cross-site collaborative research to being instrumental in the establishment of international LTER sites in Asia, South America, and Central Europe, and to participation in the US ILTER Committee. Countries and activities include:

McDonnell: UK, Japan, Sweden

Lajtha: Hungary, Germany, New Zealand

Miller: Asia (Japan, South Korea, Thailand)

Bond:Argentina and Chile.

Swanson: Japan LTER

Other international collaborations

McDonnell: UK, Japan, Sweden

As part of his LTER research, Jeff McDonnell has collaborated with scientists from the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan and Germany. Chief among his collaborations has been his participation in North-Watch, and international inter-catchment comparison program. This program aims to improve the understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change using both hydrological and biogeochemical response data. The catchments are located Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews)and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek).

During 2008, Dr. McDonnell collaborated with Takahiro Sayama (University of Kyoto, Japan) to develop a new time-space accounting scheme (T-SAS) that simulates the pre-event and event water fractions, mean residence time, and spatial source of streamflow at the watershed scale. They used data from Watershed 10 at HJ Andrews and the well-studied Maimai catchment in New Zealand. The T-SAS approach links the dynamics of residence time and time-space sources of flow at the watershed scale and may be a useful framework for other distributed rainfall-runoff models.

Jeff McDonnell also worked with Jan Seibert (University of Zurich, Switzerland and Stockholm University, Sweden) to improve upon the traditional paired-watershed approach to understanding land-change and land-use effects on rainfall-runoff dynamics. Using data from two headwater catchments at the Andrews and then scaling up to the larger Lookout watershed, McDonnell and Seibert tested a model-based change-detection approach that included model and parameter uncertainty. Their result were published in Hydrological Sciences Journal in 2010.

International Collaborators:
Genevieve Ali, University of Aberdeen, UK
Timothy Burt, University of Durham, UK
Takahiro Sayama, Kyoto University, Japan
Matthias Ritter, University of Freiburg, Germany
Doerthe Tetzlaff, University of Aberdeen, UK
Sean K. Carey, Carleton University, Canada
Jan Seibert, University of Zurich, Switzerland & Stockholm University, Sweden
Chris Soulsby, University of Aberdeen, UK
Jim Buttle, Trent University, Canada
Hjalmar Laudon, Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden
Daniel Ciassie, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada
Mike Kennedy, University of Aberdeen, UK
Kevin Devito, University of Alberta, Canada
John W. Pomeroy, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Selected publications:

Ali G, D. Tetzlaff, C. Soulsby, J.J. McDonnell and R. Capell, 2011. Catchment classification, catchment similarity indices and catchment exemplars: a cross-regional approach. Advances in Water Resources Research, in review.

Carey, S.K., D. Tetzlaff, J. Seibert, C. Soulsby, J. Buttle, H. Laudon, J.J. McDonnell, K. McGuire, D. Caissie, J. Shanley, M. Kennedy, K. Devito and J.

Pomeroy, 2010. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: synchronicity, resistance and resilience. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7880.

Kruitbos, L., D. Tetzlaff, C. Soulsby, J. Buttle, S. Carey, H. Laudon, J.J. McDonnell, K. McGuire, J. Seibert, R. Cunjak and J. Shanley, 2011. Hydroclimatic and hydrochemical controls on Plecoptera (stonefly) diversity and distribution in northern freshwater ecosystems, Hydrobiologia, in review.

Laudon, H, D. Tetzlaff, C. Soulsby, S. Carey, J. Seibert, J. Buttle, J. Shanley, J.J. McDonnell and K. McGuire, 2011. Seasonality and synchroneity of water and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in mid- to high latitude catchments. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, in review.

Sayama, T. and J.J. McDonnell, 2009. A new time-space accounting scheme for to understand predicting streamwater residence time and hydrograph source components in catchments. Water Resources Research 45, W07401, doi:10.1029/2008WR007549.

Seibert, J.; McDonnell, J.J. 2010. Land-cover impacts on streamflow: a change-detection modelling approach that incorporates parameter uncertainty. Hydrological Sciences Journal. 55(3): 316-332.

Seibert, J. and J.J, McDonnell 2010. Change detection modeling to assess the effect of forest harvesting and road construction on peak flow. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55(3): 316-332.

Lajtha: Hungary, Germany, New Zealand

Bruce Caldwell showing US and Hungarian graduate student soil structure from the Hungarian DIRT experiment

Kate Lajtha initiated the DIRT (Detrital Input and Removal Treatments) experiment at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in 1997, and maintains and coordinates cross-site DIRT analyses and syntheses, including the 20 year anniversary sampling of the original DIRT site at the Harvard Forest LTER. Many findings and experiments from the DIRT project are directly relevant to other long-term data needs of the LTER network, such as long-term data on soil respiration and soil solution chemistry. Lajtha co-chaired the meeting to coordinate the networking of central European ILTER sites in 1999, and many of those collaborations are active today. With International Supplement funding, she and a postdoc established the Hungarian DIRT site in 2001 in collaboration with colleagues from Debrecen University. Lajtha’s graduate student, Kim Townsend, received funding in 2011 through the Critical Zone Exploration Network which is funded by NSF.to conduct the 10th year anniversary sampling at that site this summer. German colleagues established a DIRT site in 2003, and are already publishing the first cross-site papers from that research.

Andesitic soils from New Zealand

Lajtha traveled to New Zealand with Inernational Supplement funds to initiate a collaboration between Dr. Troy Baisden and other scientists at The National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, and the Andrews LTER watershed group. There are many common features in forests of New Zealand and the Pacific Northwest, including volcanic soils, low N deposition, and a temperate climate. The soils at the Andrews are complex mixes of Andisols and andic Inceptisols, with characteristics that are unique to andic soils. Andisols are found around the world, but are common on the North Island of New Zealand, thus making ecological comparisons between New Zealand and PNW ecosystems highly relevant. The gauged watersheds of New Zealand are ideal for test the generality of hypotheses generated in the small watersheds of the Andrews, and Dr. Baisden can add to our water analyses by dating the C in DOM with using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at GNS Science, and also can examine molecular properties of DOM using pyrolysis mass spectrometry. These analyses will allow us to examine the sources of DOC to streams, and allow us to understand mechanisms of destabilization of SOM in different seasons and under differing climate scenarios, a central goal of both LTER6 and the DIRT LTREB award.

Selected publications:

Klotzbücher, T., S. Strohmeier, K. Kaiser, R. Bowden, K. Lajtha, H. Ohm, K. Kalbitz. 2012. Effect of litter input on lignin stability and microbial communities in soils under temperate deciduous forests. Global Change Biology, in review.

Sollins, P., M. Kramer, M. Kleber, K. Lajtha, C. Swanston, T. Filley, A. Aufdenkampe, R. Wagai, R. Bowden. 2009. Organic C and N stabilization across soils of contrasting mineralogy: further evidence from sequential density fractionation. Biogeochemistry 96: 209-231.

Tóth, J.A., K. Lajtha, Z. Kotroczó, Z. Krakomperger, B. Caldwell, R. Bowden, M. Papp. 2007. The Effect of Climate Change on Soil Organic Matter Decomposition. Acta Silv. Lign. Hung., 3: 75-85.

Horváth, L., E. Führer and K. Lajtha. 2006. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emission from Hungarian forests: link with atmospheric N deposition. Atmospheric Environment 40: 7786-7795.

Holub, S.M., K. Lajtha, J.D.H. Spears, J.A. Tóth, S.E. Crow, B.A.Caldwell, M. Papp, and P.T. Nagy. 2005. Organic matter manipulations have little effect on gross and net nitrogen transformations in two temperate forest mineral soils in the U.S.A and central Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 214:320-330.

Lajtha, K. and K. Vanderbilt, eds. 2000. Cooperation in Long Term Ecological Research in Central and Eastern Europe: Proceedings of the ILTER Regional Workshop, 22-25 June, 1999, Budapest, Hungary. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Miller: Asia (Japan, South Korea, Thailand)

Jeff Miller’s research uses Lepidoptera for bioinventory and climate change studies. His scale of interest is Pan-Pacific. The current goals of his ILTER work in Asia are to 1) designate permanent study sites for the acquisition of repeated measures on species richness and abundance, 2) delimit the taxonomic scope to an identical set of Family units across all sites, 3) standardize sampling protocols among sites in Asia and US LTER sites, 4) establish and coordinate fundamental database structures, and 5) develop benchmark indices relative to temporal and spatial patterns in the distribution and abundance of taxa. In 2002 Miller traveled to Taiwan on an international supplement grant and has visited Taiwan at least once every year between 2004 and 2011. He has established collaborations with numerous scientists at National Taiwan University and The Taiwan Forestry Institute. One book is in progress.

Selected publications:

Miller, J.C. 2010. Insects and Relatives, pp. 270-274, In: Chapter 7: Oregon’s Fish and Wildlife In A Changing Environment, Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (2010), Oregon Climate Assessment Report, K.D. Dello and P.W. Mote (eds). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Miller, J.C. 2009. International Collaboration On Biodiversity Research: A Practical, Conceptual, and Empirical Perspective. Naresuan Phayao Journal 2:1-12. Naresuan Phayao University.

Bond:Argentina and Chile.

Some of the participants from the tri-national meeting in Bariloche, Argentina; January 2009.

International collaborations between AND and colleagues in Argentina have been ongoing for over a decade, and have recently expanded to include Chile as well. With partial support from LTER supplement funds, a tri-national meeting was conducted in Bariloche, Argentina, in January 2009. The supplement supported travel by Barbara Bond and other senior PIs from the US to attend the meeting, and a second supplement provided support for six additional U.S. scientists. Four AND faculty (Barbara Bond, Mark Harmon, Mathew Betts, Elizabeth Borer) and one PhD student (Carlos Sierra) participated in the meeting. This meeting was designed to stimulate cooperation among different groups of ecologists in Argentina to develop a strategy to develop an ILTER program for one or more sites in northern Patagonia, and it was also designed to stimulate collaborations between US and Argentine scientists. It was highly successful on both counts (Austin 2009). At this meeting, Dr. Claudio Ghersa of the University of Buenos Aires was selected as the Argentine representative to lead the next phase of the Argentine ILTER effort. In September, 2009, Bond and Julia Jones led a workshop titled, "ILTER in Northern Patagonia: Developing a strategy for coordinating plans for Argentina and Chile" at the All Scientists Meeting to broaden LTER participation in these activities, and the LTER Network office provided travel support for two international colleagues to participate in this meeting - one from Argentina and one from Chile. An important outcome from this meeting was development of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Anderson of North Texas University. Anderson has a long-standing international collaboration with a different set of prominent ecologists in Chile. With separate funding from NSF, Ghersa visited Bond in the US in June 2010 to plan a special session for the fourth annual Bi-national (Chile and Argentina) Ecology Conference in Buenos Aires. This meeting took place on August 13 2010 as a round-table discussion and was attended by 15 ecologists from the U.S., Chile and Argentina; the support for Bond’s travel to this meeting came from the remaining funds in our 2009 international supplement. A smaller group of about 10 people (including Bond and Anderson) met the following day to craft strategies for continuing the collaboration. Action plans from this meeting were: 1) to submit to Oregon State University a pre-proposal for an NSF-PIRE proposal to forward the collaboration (Bond and Ghersa); 2) to resubmit to NSF in 2011 a revised version of a PASI proposal (a version submitted in 2010 was not funded but a resubmission was encouraged) (Chris Anderson, Bond, others); 3) to write a manuscript based on concepts in the PASI proposal (Anderson, others); 4) to continue the momentum of this group through annual or semi-annual meetings (Ghersa). Unfortunately, the PIRE opportunity was not offered that year, and NSF did not allow Anderson to resubmit a revised PASI proposal in a consecutive year, but good progress is being made on other fronts. The manuscript (#3) is nearly complete and should be submitted by the end of this summer. Ghersa will be again visiting Bond in the US in July 2012 to plan the next meeting (#4). As many others in the U.S. LTER network have observed previously, there are considerable political, institutional and national (Argentina/Chile) barriers to overcome before ILTER sites can be established in this region, but we are encouraged that our progress is steady.

Bond is also continuing long-term research collaborations with colleagues in Argentina. The broad goal of these research activities is to compare the ecophysiology of vegetation in the climatically similar regions of the Pacific Northwest and northern Patagonia. Since the beginning of LTER6, this work has produced four publications.

Selected publications:

Austin, Amy T. 2009. Planning for connections in the long-term in Patagonia. (Pub No: 4511).

Gyenge, M.-E. Fernández, J. Licata, M. Wiegandt, B.J. Bond T.M. Schlichter, and B.J. Bond. (2011). Uso del agua y productividad de los bosques nativos e implantados en el N.O. de la Patagonia: aproximaciones desde la ecohidrología y la ecofisiología. Ecofisiología de Plantas Leñosas. Accepted for publication.

Fernández, M.E., J.A. Licata, J.E. Gyenge, T.M. Schlichter and B.J. Bond. 2008. Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system. Agroforestry Systems DOI 10.1007/s10457-008-9119-4.

Licata, J.A., T.G. Pypker, M. Weigandt, M.H. Unsworth, J.E. Gyenge, M.-E. Fernández, T.M. Schlichter, and B.J. Bond. 2011. Decreased rainfall interception balances increased transpiration in exotic ponderosa plantations compared with native cypress stands in Patagonia, Argentina Ecohydrology 4:83-93

Licata, J.A., J.E. Gyenge, M.E. Fernández, T.M. Schlichter and B.J. Bond. 2008. Increased water use by ponderosa pine plantations in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina compared with native forest vegetation. Forest Ecology and Management 255(3):753-764

International Collaborators:
Tomás Schlicter, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Argentina
María Elena Fernandez, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Argentina
Julián Licata, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Argentina
Javier Gyenge, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Argentina
Amy Austin, Univeristy of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Roberto Fernández, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Claudio Ghersa, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Chris Anderson, North Texas University, U.S.

Swanson: Japan LTER

Members of the Andrews Forest LTER program have collaborated with Japanese colleagues central to the Japan LTER program (JaLTER) since the early 1980s with activities centered on collaborative research on watershed processes and landscape dynamics, environmental science education for graduate students, and operations of LTER programs at site and network scales. Activities of the past two years include 1.) hosting several groups of graduate students from Universities of Tokyo and Hokkaido, 2.) collaborating with geography professor S. Takaoka (Senshu Univ., Tokyo) in a study of long-term meadow dynamics in the Andrews Forest and vicinity, 3.) co-hosting a Korean post doc who came to us via JaLTER/Hokkaido University connections where he did his PhD, 4.) several visits to Japan by senior Andrews faculty, most recently (2010) by Jones and Swanson to teach in an international graduate student field course that is part of JaLTER, and 5.) an Andrews PhD student (a Japanese and English speaking Korean majoring in water resources) is attending the 2011 version of this field course. This is a self-sustaining collaboration based on numerous inter-personal contacts and shared institutional interests.

Selected publications (since 2000 only):

Kasahara, T. 2000. Geomorphic controls on hyporheic exchange flow in mountain streams, Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 103 p. M.S. thesis.

Kasahara, T.; Wondzell, S. M. 2003 . Geomorphic controls on hyporheic exchange flow in mountain streams. Water Resources Research. 39(1): 1005, doi:10.1029/2002WR001386.

Shibata, H.; Sugawara, O.; Toyoshima, H.; Wondzell, S. M.; Nakamura, F.; Kasahara, T.; Swanson, F. J.; Sasa, K. 2004. Nitrogen dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a forested stream during a small storm, Hokkaido, Japan. Biogeochemistry. 69: 83-104.

Takaoka, S. 2008. Developing ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) from a local perspective: a case study of forest management in the Pacific Northwest region of USA. Chiri. 53(11): 97-104. [In Japanese].

Takaoka, S.; Swanson, F. J. 2008. Change in extent of meadows and shrub fields in the central western Cascade Range, Oregon. Professional Geographer. 60(4):1-14.

Other related international collaborations include: