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  Research Areas

Biological Diversity

In old forest, stream, and meadow ecosystems, the Andrews Forest has thousands of species of insects, 83 bird species, 19 gymnosperm species, and 9 species of fish. Biodiversity research at Andrews examines the causes and consequences of biological diversity in our landscape and seeks to understand how land use, disturbance, and climate change will affect these patterns and relationships. Studies range from the genetic to landscape scales, and include field observational studies, experiments, and modeling. We use "biodiversity" as a broad term/theme for many pieces of work that, for the most part, are not coordinated in a unified program of inquiry.

LTER6 brought a renewed energy and interest to the study of phenology to evaluate the influences of microclimatic heterogeneity, associated with complex terrain, on phenology (Goal I, objective 3) and to evaluate potential trophic responses to scenarios of change in climate, disturbance and land use (Goal II, objective 3). Focus was on a simplified model trophic system involving vascular plants, terrestrial and aquatic insects, and migratory neotropical and resident birds. The work usee and extended our long-term studies of plant phenology, climate, Lepidoptera, and aquatic insects in LTER5 and earlier, and allows us to expand our biotic studies to include birds. The model trophic system is ideal because the phonological behaviors across trophic levels are both independent (responding to different abiotic drivers) and dependent (due to trophic interactions), potentially leading to complex system behaviors.

Common moth species in the Andrews Forest

Research Details

Key Databases

List of all Biological Diversity databases


Other Links

Key Citations

Kremer, N. J., C. B. Halpern, J. A. Antos. 2014. Conifer reinvasion of montane meadows following experimental tree removal and prescribed burning. Forest Ecology and Management 319:128-137. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.002 (Pub No: 4850)

Pham, Tuan; Jones, Julia; Metoyer, Ronald; Swanson, Frederick; Pabst, Robert. 2013. Interactive visual analysis promotes exploration of long-term ecological data. Ecosphere 4(9):112, doi:10.1890/ES13-00121.1. (Pub No: 4824)

Choi, Sei-Woong; Miller, Jeffrey C. 2013. Species richness and abundance among macromoths: A comparison of taxonomic, temporal and spatial patterns in Oregon and South Korea. Entomological research. 43(6):312-321, doi:10.1111/1748-5967.12036. (Pub No: 4827)

Highland, Steven A.; Miller, Jerffrey C.; Jones, Julia A. 2013. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: vegetation, topography, and seasonality. Ecosphere 4(10):129 (Pub No: 4837)

Forrest Briggs, Xiaoli Z. Fern, Raviv Raich. "Context-Aware MIML Instance Annotation." In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Data-Mining (ICDM 2013), Dallas, Texas, December 7-10, 2013. (Pub No: 4846)

Briggs, Forrest; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Raich, Raviv; Lou, Qi. 2013. Instance Annotation for Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning. ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data 7(3), 30p. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500491 (Pub No: 4847)

Briggs, F., Fern, X. Z., and Irvine, J. Multi-Label Classifier Chains for Bird Sound. ArXiv e-prints, April 2013. IN: Glotin H., Clark C., LeCun Y., Dugan P., Halkias X. and Sueur J.,(2013), Proc. of the first workshop on Machine Learning for Bioacoustics, Vol.1, 104 pages, joint to Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2013, JMLR W&CP volume 28. Atlanta, GA. June 20-21, 2013. ISBN 979-10-90821-02-6, http://sabiod.univ-tln.fr/ICML4B2013_proceedings.pdf URL: http://sabiod.univ-tln.fr/icml2013/ (Pub No: 4848)

Briggs, Forrest; Huang, Yonghong; Raich, Raviv; Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Lei, Zhong; Cukierski, William; Hadley, Sarah F.; Hadley, Adam; Betts, Matthew; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Irvine, Jed; Neal, Lawrence; Thomas, Anil; Fodor, Gabor; Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Ng, Hong W.; Nguyen, Thi N. T.; Huttunen, Heikki; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Manninen, Tapio; Diment, Aleksandr; Virtanen, Tuomas; Marzat, Julien; Defretin, Joseph; Callender, Dave; Hurlhurt, Chris; Larrey, Ken; Milakov, Maxim. 2013. The 9th Annual MLSP Competition: New Methods for Acoustic Classification of Multiple Simultaneous Bird Species in a Noisy Environment. In: Sanei, Saeid; Smaragdis, Paris; Nandi, Asoke; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Larsen, Jan, eds. Proceedings of the workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing; September 22-25, 2013. 8 p. (Pub No: 4849)

Case, Madelon F.; Halpern, Charles B.; Levin, Simon A. 2013. Contributions of gopher mound and casting disturbances to plant community structure in a Cascade Range meadow complex. Botany 91: 555–561. doi:10.1139/cjb-2013-0023. (Pub No: 4794)

Stauth, David. 2012. Singing in the rain: Technology improves monitoring of bird sounds. [Electronic Newsletter]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. http://phys.org/news/2012-05-technology-bird.html. (Pub No: 4814)

Pfeiffer, Vera W. 2012. Influence of Spatial and Temporal Factors on Plants, Pollinators and Plant-pollinator Interactions in Montane Meadows of the Western Cascades Range. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 287 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 4766)

Briggs, Forrest., Lakshminarayanan, Balaji., Neal, Lawrence., Fern, Xiaoli Z., Raich, Raviv., Hadley, Sarah J. K., Hadley, Adam S., and Betts, Matthew G. 2012. Acoustic classification of multiple simultaneous bird species: A multi-instance multi-label approach. Acoustical Society of America 131(6):4640-4650. (Pub No: 4778)

Case, Madelon. 2012. Gopher disturbance and plant community dynamics in montane meadows. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. 78 p. Senior thesis. (Pub No: 4746)

Briggs, Forrest; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Raich, Raviv. 2012. Rank-Loss Support Instance Machines for MIML Instance Annotation. In: KDD '12 Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining; 2012 August 12-16; New York, NY. Association for Computer Machinery: 534-542. (Pub No: 4836)

Rice, Janine. M.; Halpern, Charles. B.; Antos, Joseph. A.; Jones, Julia. A. 2012. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow. Plant Ecology. 213: 555-568. (Pub No: 4710)

Smoluk, Alexis. 2011. Geographic distributions of prey of the northern spotted owl in the central western Cascades, Oregon, 1988-2009. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 74 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 4721)

Yu, Jun; Wong, Weng-Keen; Dietterich, Tom; Jones, Julia; Betts, Matthew; Frey, Sarah; Shirley, Susan; Miller, Jeffrey; White, Matt. 2011. Multi-label classification for multi-species distribution modeling. In: Proceedings of the 28th international conference on machine learning; Bellevue, WA. International Machine Learning Society: http://www.icml-2011.org/index.php. (Pub No: 4735)

Neal, Lawrence; Briggs, Forrest; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli. 2011. Time-frequency segmentation of bird song in noisy acoustic environments. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing; Prague. Czech Republic: 2012-2015. (Pub No: 4737)

Forsman, Eric D.; Anthony, Robert G.; Dugger, Katie M.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Franklin, Alan B.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Lint, Joseph B.; Davis, Raymond J.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Biswell, Brian L.; Carlson, Peter C.; Diller, Lowell V.; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Horn, Robert B.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Schaberl, James P.; Snetsinger, Thomas J.; Sovern, Stan G. 2011. Population demography of northern spotted owls. Studies in Avian Biology No. 40 [The Cooper Ornithological Society]. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 106 p. (Pub No: 4743)

Adler, Peter B.;Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, Michael, Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; and Yang, Louie H. 2011. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness. Science. 333: 1750-1753. (Pub No: 4748)

Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Philip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M. 2011. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities. Ecology Letters. 14: 274-281. (Pub No: 4683)

Highland, Steven A. 2011. The historic and contemporary ecology of western Cascade Meadows: archeology, vegetation, and macromoth ecology. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 354 p. Ph.D. dissertation. (Pub No: 4704)

Pham, Tuan; Highland, Steven; Metoyer, Ronald; Henshaw, Donald; Miller, Jeff; Jones, Julia. 2011. Interactive visualization of spatial and temporal patterns of diversity and abundance in ecological data. In: Jones, M. B.; Gries, C., eds. Proceedings of the environmental information management conference (EIM 2011); Santa Barbara, CA. University of California: 104-110, doi:10.5060/D2NC5Z4X. (Pub No: 4707)

Dovciak, Martin; Halpern, Charles B. 2010 . Positive diversity-stability relationships in forest herb populations during four decades of community assembly. Ecology Letters. 13: 1300-1309, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01524.x. (Pub No: 4578)

Frady, Charles; Johnson, Sherri; Li, Judy. 2007. Stream macroinvertebrate community responses as legacies of forest harvest at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Forest Science. 53(2): 281-293. (Pub No: 4053)

Lutz, James A.; Halpern, Charles B. 2006. Tree mortality during early forest development: a long-term study of rates, causes, and consequences. Ecological Monographs. 76(2): 257-275. (Pub No: 4017)

Watterson, Nicholas. 2004. Exotic plant invasion from roads to stream networks in steep forested landscapes of western Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 90 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 3807)

Heyborne, W. H.; Miller, J. C.; Parsons, G. L. 2003. Ground dwelling beetles and forest vegetation change over a 17-year-period, in western Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 179: 123-134. (Pub No: 3668)

Rich, J. J.; Heichen, R. S.; Bottomley, P. J.; Cromack, K. Jr. ; Myrold, D. D. 2003. Community composition and functioning of denitrifying bacteria from adjacent meadow and forest soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(10): 5974-5982. (Pub No: 3676)

Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hammond, Paul C. 2003 . Lepidoptera of the Pacific Northwest: caterpillars and adults. FHTET-2003-03. Morgantown, VW: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. 324 p. (Pub No: 3739)

Rozzell, Lara R. 2003. Species pairwise associations over nine years of secondary succession: assessing alternative explanations and successional mechanisms. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 56 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 3782)

Parendes, Laurie A.; Jones, Julia A. 2000. Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology. 14(1): 64-75. (Pub No: 2522)

Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hammond, Paul C. 2000. Macromoths of Northwest forests and woodlands. FHTET-98-18. Morgantown, VW: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. 133 p. (Pub No: 2802)

Hammond, Paul C.; Miller, Jeffrey C. 1998. Comparison of the biodiversity of Lepidoptera within three forested ecosystems. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 91(3): 323-328. (Pub No: 2530)

Hansen, Andrew J.; Garman, Steven L.; Marks, Barbara; Urban, Dean L. 1996. An approach for managing vertebrate diversity across multiple use landscapes. In: Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L., eds. Ecosystem management: selected readings. New York: Springer-Verlag: 331-350. (Pub No: 3041)

Halpern, Charles B.; Spies, Thomas A. 1995. Plant species diversity in natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications. 5(4): 913-934. (Pub No: 1526)

Peck, JeriLynn E.; Acker, Steven A.; McKee, W. Arthur. 1995. Autecology of mosses in coniferous forests in the central western Cascades of Oregon. Northwest Science. 69(3): 184-190. (Pub No: 1549)

Sillett, Stephen Charles. 1995. Canopy epiphyte studies in the central Oregon Cascades: implications for the management of Douglas-fir forests. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 115 p. Ph.D. dissertation. (Pub No: 2227)

Miller, Jeffrey C. 1995. Caterpillars of Pacific Northwest forests and woodlands. Morgantown, VW: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center of Forest Health Management; FHM-NC-06-95. 80 p. (Pub No: 2402)

Neitlich, Peter N. 1993. Lichen abundance and biodiversity along a chronosequence from young managed stands to ancient forest. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. 90 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 1504)

Hansen, Andrew J.; Garman, Steven L.; Marks, Barbara; Urban, Dean L. 1993. An approach for managing vertebrate diversity across multiple-use landscapes. Ecological Applications. 3(3): 481-496. (Pub No: 1257)

Walls, Susan C.; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Beatty, Joseph J. 1992. Amphibian biodiversity of the Pacific Northwest with special reference to old-growth stands. The Northwest Environmental Journal. 8: 53-69. (Pub No: 1397)

Halpern, Charles B.; Franklin, Jerry F.; McKee, Arthur. 1992. Changes in plant species diversity after harvest of Douglas-fir forests. Northwest Environmental Journal. 8(1): 205-207. (Pub No: 1405)

Halpern, Charles B.; Antos, Joseph A.; Cromack, Kermit Jr.; Olson, Annette M. 1992. Species interactions and plant diversity during secondary succession. Northwest Environmental Journal. 8(1): 203-205. (Pub No: 1406)

Spies, Thomas A. 1991. Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature and old-growth Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon and Washington. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; Huff, Mark H., tech. eds. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 111-121. (Pub No: 1245)

Parsons, Gary L.; Cassis, Gerasimos; Moldenke, Andrew R.; Lattin, John D.; Anderson, Norman H.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hammond, Paul; Schowalter, Timothy D. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Mountains, Oregon: V. An annotated list of the insects and other arthropods. PNW-GTR-290. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 168 p. (Pub No: 984)

Halpern, Charles B.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1990. Physiognomic development of Pseudotsuga forests in relation to initial structure and disturbance intensity. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1: 475-482. (Pub No: 1129)

Franklin, Jerry F.; Perry, David A.; Schowalter, Timothy D.; Harmon, Mark E.; McKee, Arthur; Spies, Thomas A. 1989. The importance of ecological diversity in maintaining long-term site productivity. In: Perry, D. A.; Meurisse, R.; Thomas, B.; Miller, R.; Boyle, J.; Means, J.; Perry, C. R.; Powers, R. F., eds. Maintaining the long-term productivity of Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems. Portland, OR: Timber Press: 82-97. (Pub No: 950)

Halpern, Charles B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology. 70(3): 704-720. (Pub No: 956)

Schowalter, T. D.; Crossley, D. A. Jr. 1988. Canopy arthropods and their response to forest disturbance. In: Swank, Wayne T.; Crossley, D. A. Jr., eds. Forest hydrology and ecology at Coweeta. Ecology Studies 66. New York: Springer-Verlag: 207-218. (Pub No: 1332)

Franklin, Jerry F.; Cromack, Kermit Jr.; Denison, William; McKee, Arthur; Maser, Chris; Sedell, James; Swanson, Fred; Juday, Glen. 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-118. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. (Pub No: 125)

Zobel, Donald B.; McKee, Arthur; Hawk, Glenn M.; Dyrness, C. T. 1976. Relationships of environment to composition, structure, and diversity of forest communities of the central western Cascades of Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 46(2): 135-156. (Pub No: 192)

Parsons, David R. 1975. Time and energy budgets of a population of dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) during winter in the Cascade Range of Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 29 p. M.S. thesis. (Pub No: 1947)