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    Other publications by Thomas A. Spies
    Acker, Steven A., Harmon, Mark E., Spies, Thomas A., McKee, W. Arthur 1996
    Spatial patterns of tree mortality in an old-growth Abies-Pseudotsuga stand
    Pub No: 1415

    Alig, Ralph J., Zheng, Daolan, Spies, Thomas A., Butler, Brett J. 2000
    Forest cover dynamics in the Pacific Northwest west side: regional trends and projections
    Pub No: 2756

    Bettinger, Pete, Johnson, K. Norman, Brooks, Jonathan, Herstrom, Andrew A., Spies, Thomas A. 2000
    Phase I report: developing landscape simulation methodologies for assessing the sustainability of forest resources in western Oregon
    Pub No: 3727

    Bettinger, Pete, Lennette, Marie, Johnson, K. Norman, Spies, Thomas A. 2005
    A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning
    Pub No: 3702

    Bormann, Bernard T., Lee, Danny C., Kiester, A. Ross, Spies, Thomas A., Haynes, Richard W., Reeves, Gordon H., Raphael, Martin G., Martin, Jon R., Busch, David E., Molina, Nancy, Molina, Randy, Marcot, Bruce G., Brookes, Martha H.] 2006
    Synthesis: interpreting the Northwest Forest Plan as more than the sum of its parts
    Pub No: 4082

    Bradshaw, G. A., Spies, Thomas 1992
    Characterizing canopy gap structure in forests using wavelet analysis
    Pub No: 1372

    Busing, Richard T., Halpern, Charles B., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Ecology of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) in western Oregon and Washington
    Pub No: 2180

    Busing, Richard T., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew
    Pub No: 2103

    Canham, Charles D., Denslow, Julie S., Platt, William J., Runkle, James R., Spies, Tom A., White, Peter S. 1990
    Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests
    Pub No: 1134

    Carey, Andrew B., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Sampling design of the old-growth forest wildlife habitat program
    Pub No: 1241

    Chan, S. S., McCreight, R. W., Walstad, J. D., Spies, T. A. 1986
    Evaluating forest vegetative cover with computerized analysis of fisheye photographs
    Pub No: 62

    Chen, Jiquan, Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1990
    Microclimatic pattern and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas-fir stands
    Pub No: 1159

    Chen, Jiquan, Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1992
    Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 1448

    Chen, Jiquan, Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1993
    An empirical model for predicting diurnal air-temperature gradients from edge into old-growth Douglas-fir forest
    Pub No: 1459

    Chen, Jiquan, Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1993
    Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forests.
    Pub No: 1420

    Chen, Jiquan, Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clearcut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 2095

    Cohen, W. B., Maiersperger, T. K., Spies, T. A., Oetter, D. R. 2001
    Modeling forest cover attributes as continuous variables in a regional context with thematic mapper data
    Pub No: 2603

    Cohen, W. B., Spies, T. A., Swanson, F. J., Wallin, D. O. 1995
    Cover--Land cover on the western slopes of the central Oregon Cascade Range
    Pub No: 2033

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A. 1990
    Remote sensing of canopy structure in the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 1154

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Image spatial and spectral models for estimating conifer canopy forest structural attributes
    Pub No: 1224

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Development and use of an extensive regional database for ecological research, inventory, and monitoring
    Pub No: 1396

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A. 1992
    Estimating structural attributes of Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest stands from Landsat and SPOT imagery
    Pub No: 1223

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A., Alig, Ralph J., Oetter, Douglas R., Maiersperger, Thomas K., Fiorella, Maria 2002
    Characterizing 23 years (1972-1995) of stand replacement disturbance in western Oregon forests with Landsat imagery
    Pub No: 2818

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A., Bradshaw, Gay A. 1990
    Semivariograms of digital imagery for analysis of conifer canopy structure
    Pub No: 1179

    Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A., Fiorella, Maria 1995
    Estimating the age and structure of forests in a multi-ownership landscape of western Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 1546

    Corn, Paul Stephen, Bury, R. Bruce, Spies, Thomas A. 1988
    Douglas-fir forests in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington: is the abundance of small mammals related to stand age and moisture?
    Pub No: 943

    Dellasala, D. A., Anthony, R. G., Spies, T. A., Engel, K. A. 1998
    Management of bald eagle communal roosts in fire adapted mixed-conifer forests
    Pub No: 2480

    Denslow, Julie S., Spies, Thomas 1990
    Canopy gaps in forest ecosystems: an introduction
    Pub No: 1133

    Driscoll, Charles T., Lambert,Kathleen F., Chapin, F. Stuart, III, Nowak, David, Spies, Thomas A., Swanson, Frederick J., Kittredge, David B., Jr., Hart, Clarisse M. 2012
    Science and society: the role of long-term studies in environmental stewardship
    Pub No: 4670

    Duncan, Sally L., Lach, Denise, Spies, Thomas A. 2009
    Old growth in a new world: a synthesis
    Pub No: 4368

    Duncan, Sally, Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 2002
    Canopy gaps and dead tree dynamics: poking holes in the forest
    Pub No: 3102

    Duncan, Sally, Spies, Tom 2002
    Changing the scale of our thinking: landscape-level learning
    Pub No: 3115

    Easter, M. J., Spies, T. A. 1994
    Using hemispherical photography for estimating photosynthetic photon flux density under canopies and in gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 1806

    Fassnacht, Karin S., Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A. 2006
    Key issues in making and using satellite-based maps in ecology: a primer
    Pub No: 3693

    Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team [FEMAT] 1993
    Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment
    Pub No: 1450

    Franklin, Jerry F., Graber, David, Johnson, K. Norman, Fites-Kaufman, Joann, Menning, Kurt, Parsons, David, Sessions, John, Spies, Thomas A., Tappeiner, John, Thornburgh, Dale 1996
    Alternative approaches to conservation of late-successional forests in the Sierra Nevada and their evaluation: working group on late-successional conservation strategies
    Pub No: 2365

    Franklin, Jerry F., Perry, David A., Schowalter, Timothy D., Harmon, Mark E., McKee, Arthur, Spies, Thomas A. 1989
    The importance of ecological diversity in maintaining long-term site productivity
    Pub No: 950

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1984
    Characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 120

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1986
    The ecology of old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 34

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Composition, function, and structure of old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 1242

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Ecological definitions of old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 1243

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas A., Van Pelt, Robert, Carey, Andrew B., Thornburgh, Dale A., Berg, Dean Rae, Lindenmayer, David B., Harmon, Mark E., Keeton, William S., Shaw, David C., Bible, Ken, Chen, Jiquan 2002
    Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silviculture implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example
    Pub No: 2796

    Franklin, Jerry F., Spies, Thomas, Perry, David, Harmon, Mark, McKee, Arthur 1986
    Modifying Douglas-fir management regimes for nontimber objectives
    Pub No: 73

    Franklin, Jerry F., Swanson, Frederick J., Harmon, Mark E., Perry, David A., Spies, Thomas A., Dale, Virginia H., McKee, Arthur, Ferrell, William K., Means, Joseph E., Gregory, Stanley V., Lattin, John D., Schowalter, Timothy D., Larsen, David 1991
    Effects of global climatic change on forests in northwestern North America
    Pub No: 1267

    Franklin, Jerry F., Swanson, Frederick J., Harmon, Mark E., Perry, David A., Spies, Thomas A., Dale, Virginia H., McKee, Arthur, Ferrell, William K., Means, Joseph E., Gregory, Stanley V., Lattin, John D., Schowalter, Timothy D., Larsen, David 1992
    Effects of global climatic change on forests in Northwestern North America
    Pub No: 1037

    Garman, Steven L., Acker, Steven A., Ohmann, Janet L., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Asymptotic height-diameter equations for twenty-four tree species in western Oregon
    Pub No: 1445

    Garman, Steven L., Spies, Thomas A., Cohen, Warren B., Means, Joseph E., Bradshaw, Gay A., Dippon, Duane 1995
    Research problem analysis--modeling, monitoring, and displaying ecological change at watershed to landscape scales: tools for ecosystem management
    Pub No: 2937

    Garman, Steven L., Swanson, Frederick J., Spies, Thomas A. 1999
    Past, present, and future landscape patterns in the Douglas-fir region of the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 2587

    Gray, A. N., Easter, M. J., Spies, T. A. 1999
    Microenvironments of canopy gaps in mature conifer forests [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2690

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 1992
    Tree establishment in canopy openings in mature Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 1402

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Water content measurement in forest soils and decayed wood using time domain reflectometry
    Pub No: 1791

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 1996
    Gap size, within-gap position and canopy structure effects on conifer seedling establishment
    Pub No: 2260

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 1997
    Microsite controls on tree seedling establishment in conifer forest canopy gaps
    Pub No: 2261

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 1998
    Ecosystem management
    Pub No: 2546

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A., Easter, Mark J. 2002
    Microclimatic and soil moisture responses to gap formation in coastal Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 3036

    Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A., Pabst, Robert J. 2001
    Response of overstory and understory conifers to gap size and resource levels [Abstract]
    Pub No: 3134

    Gray, Andrew N.; Spies, Thomas A.; Pabst, Robert J. 2012
    Canopy gaps affect long-term patterns of tree growth and mortality in mature and old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 4781

    Griffiths, Robert P., Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 2010
    Soil properties in old-growth Douglas-fir forest gaps in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon
    Pub No: 4575

    Halofsky, J. E., Donato, D. C., Hibbs, D. E., Campbell, J. L., Cannon, M. Donaghy, Fontaine, J. B., Thompson, J. R., Anthony, R. G., Bormann, B. T., Kayes, L. J., Law, B. E., Peterson, D. L., Spies, T.A. 2011
    Mixed-severity fire regimes: lessons and hypotheses from the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion
    Pub No: 4659

    Halpern, Charles B., Spies, Thomas A. 1995
    Plant species diversity in natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 1526

    Hansen, A. J., Spies, T. A., Swanson, F. J., Ohmann, J. L. 1991
    Conserving biodiversity in managed forests
    Pub No: 1200

    Hansen, Andrew, Ripple, William, Perry, David, Garman, Steven, Neilson, Ron, Spies, Thomas, Wallin, David, Cohen, Warren, Lehmkuhl, John 1993
    Modeling vertebrate habitats in Pacific Northwest forests under global change conceptual and methodological issues
    Pub No: 1384

    Harcombe, P. A., Greene, S. E., Kramer, M. G., Acker, S. A., Spies, T. A., Valentine, T. 2004
    The influence of fire and windthrow dynamics on a coastal spruce-hemlock forest in Oregon, USA, based on aerial photographs spanning 40 years
    Pub No: 3641

    Healey, Sean P., Cohen, Warren B., Spies, Thomas A., Moeur, Melinda, Pflugmacher, Dirk, Whitley, M. German, Lefsky, Michael 2008
    The relative impact of harvest and fire upon landscape-level dynamics of older forests: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan
    Pub No: 4200

    Hemstrom, Miles, Spies, Thomas, Palmer, Craig, Kiester, Ross, Teply, John, McDonald, Phil, Warbington, Ralph 1998
    Late-successional and old-growth forest effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan
    Pub No: 2570

    Hess, Rebecca S., Spies, Thomas A. 2001
    Snag and down wood patterns in forests of the Coast Range of Oregon [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2944

    Hobbs, Stephen D., Hayes, John P., Johnson, Rebecca L., Reeves, Gordon H., Spies, Thomas A. , Tappeiner, John C., II 2002
    Moving toward sustainability
    Pub No: 3188

    Hummel, Susan, Donovan, Geoffrey H., Spies, Thomas A., Hemstrom, Miles A. 2009
    Conserving biodiversity using risk management: hoax or hope?
    Pub No: 4431

    Johnson, K. Norman, Bettinger, Pete, Kline, Jeffrey D., Spies, Thomas A., Lennette, Marie, Lettman, Gary, Garber-Yonts, Brian, Larsen, Tad 2007
    Simulating forest structure, timber production, and socioeconomic effects in a multi-owner province
    Pub No: 4084

    Johnson, K. Norman, Duncan, Sally, Spies, Thomas A. 2007
    Regional policy models for forest biodiversity analysis: lessons from coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 4227

    Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., Olsen, Keith A., Pabst, Robert J., Spies, Thomas A. 2004
    A simulation of dead wood dynamics in the Elliott State Forest, Oregon
    Pub No: 3777

    Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., Spies, Thomas A. 2004
    Forest cover changes in the Oregon Coast Range from 1939 to 1993
    Pub No: 3692

    Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., Spies, Thomas A. 2005
    Dynamics of hardwood patches in a conifer matrix: 54 years of change in a forested landscape in coastal Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 3647

    Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., Spies, Thomas A. 2007
    An assessment of dead wood patterns and their relationships with biophysical characteristics in two landscapes with different disturbance histories in coastal Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 4138

    Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., Spies, Thomas A., Gregory, Matthew J. 2008
    Relationships of dead wood patterns with biophysical characteristics and ownership according to scale in coastal Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 4152

    Lee, Danny C., Bormann, Bernard T., Haynes, Richard W., Spies, Thomas A., Reeves, Gordon H., Raphael, Martin G., Busch, David E., Martin, Jon R., Kiester, A. Ross, Molina, Nancy, Molina, Randy, Marcot, Bruce G.] 2006
    Progress to date
    Pub No: 4081

    Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Acker, S. A., Parker, G. G., Spies, T. A., Harding, D. 1999
    Lidar remote sensing of the canopy structure and biophysical properties of Douglas-fir western hemlock forests
    Pub No: 3488

    Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Acker, S. A., Parker, G. G., Spies, T. A., Harding, D. 1999
    Lidar remote sensing of the canopy structure and biophysical properties of Douglas-fir western hemlock forests
    Pub No: 2595

    Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Acker, S. A., Spies, T. A., Parker, G. G., Harding, D. 1998
    Lidar remote sensing of forest canopy structure and related biophysical parameters at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 2507

    Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Acker, S. A., Spies, T. A., Parker, G. G., Harding, D. 1998
    Lidar remote sensing of forest canopy structure and related biophysical parameters at H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 2941

    Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Spies, T. A. 2001
    An evaluation of alternate remote sensing products for forest inventory, monitoring, and mapping of Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon
    Pub No: 2798

    Lertzman, Ken, Spies, Tom, Swanson, Fred 1997
    From ecosystem dynamics to ecosystem management
    Pub No: 2296

    Li, Habin,, Franklin, Jerry F., Swanson, Frederick J., Spies, Thomas A. 1993
    Developing alternative forest cutting patterns: A simulation approach
    Pub No: 1296

    Lindh, Briana C., Gray, Andrew N., Spies, Thomas A. 2003
    Responses of herbs and shrubs to reduced root competition under canopies and in gaps: a trenching experiment in old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 3119

    Maleki, Sussanne, Spies, Tom 2008
    Counting all that matters: recognizing the value of ecosystem services
    Pub No: 4410

    Mazza, Rhonda, Peterson, Dave, McIver, Jim, Dykstra, Dennis, Spies, Tom 2007
    Managing forests after fire
    Pub No: 4462

    McAlpine, C. A., Spies, T. A., Norman, P., Peterson, A. 2007
    Conserving forest biodiversity across multiple land ownerships: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan and the Southeast Queensland regional forests agreement (Australia)
    Pub No: 4095

    McComb, Brenda C., Spies, Thomas A., Olsen, Keith A. 2007
    Sustaining biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: potential effects of forest policies in a multi-ownership province
    Pub No: 4148

    McComb, William C., McGrath, Michael T., Spies, Thomas A., Vesely, David 2002
    Models for mapping potential habitat at landscape scales: an example using northern spotted owls
    Pub No: 3068

    McComb, William C., Spies, Thomas A., Emmingham, William H. 1993
    Douglas-fir forests: managing for timber and mature-forest habitat
    Pub No: 1505

    Means, Joe, Spies, Tom, Chen, Shu-huei, Kertis, Jane, Teensma, Pete 1996
    Forests of the Oregon Coast Range--considerations for ecological restoration
    Pub No: 2279

    Moeur, M., Ohmann, J. L., Kennedy, R. E., Cohen, W. B., Gregory, M. J., Yang, Z., Roberts, H. M., Spies, T. A., Fiorella, M. 2011
    Status and trends of late-successional and old-growth forests
    Pub No: 4671

    Moeur, Melinda, Spies, Thomas A., Hemstrom, Miles, Martin, Jon R., Alegria, James, Browning, Julie, Cissel, John, Cohen, Warren B., Demeo, Thomas E., Healey, Sean, Warbington, Ralph 2005
    Northwest Forest Plan--the first 10 years (1994-2003): status and trend of late-successional and old-growth forest
    Pub No: 4086

    Mulder, Barry S., Noon, Barry R., Spies, Thomas A., Raphael, Martin G., Palmer, Craig J., Olsen, Anthony R., Reeves, Gordon H., Welsh, Hartwell H. 1999
    The strategy and design of the effectiveness monitoring program for the Northwest Forest Plan
    Pub No: 2618

    Nonaka, Etsuko, Spies, Thomas A. 2005
    Historical range of variability in landscape structure: a simulation study in Oregon, USA
    Pub No: 4035

    Nonaka, Etsuko, Spies, Thomas A., Wimberly, Michael C., Ohmann, Janet L. 2007
    Historical range of variability in live and dead wood biomass: a regional-scale simulation study
    Pub No: 4182

    Ohmann, Janet L., Gregory, Matthew J., Spies, Thomas A. 2007
    Influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on forest vegetation of coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 3710

    Ohmann, Janet L., Spies, Thomas A. 1998
    Regional gradient analysis and spatial pattern of woody plant communities of Oregon forests
    Pub No: 2276

    Oliver, Marie, Spies, Tom, Duncan, Sally 2009
    Old growth revisited: integrating social, economic, and ecological perspectives
    Pub No: 4487

    Pabst, Robert J., Goslin, Matthew N., Garman, Steven L., Spies, Thomas A. 2008
    Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range
    Pub No: 4302

    Pabst, Robert J., Spies, Thomas A. 1998
    Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests of coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 2303

    Pabst, Robert J., Spies, Thomas A. 1999
    Structure and composition of unmanaged riparian forests in the coastal mountains of Oregon, U.S.A.
    Pub No: 2755

    Pabst, Robert J., Spies, Thomas A. 2001
    Ten years of vegetation succession on a debris-flow deposit in Oregon
    Pub No: 3074

    Perry, David A., Hessburg, Paul F., Skinner, Carl N., Spies, Thomas A., Stephens, Scott L., Taylor, Alan Henry, Franklin, Jerry F., McComb, Brenda, Riegel, Greg 2011
    The ecology of mixed severity fire regimes in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California
    Pub No: 4664

    Plumley, Harriet, Spies, Tom, Hawkins, Chuck 1999
    Oregon Coast Range Province effectiveness monitoring pilot study: late-successional and old-growth forests, northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet
    Pub No: 2943

    Poage, Nathan J., Spies, Thomas A. 1996
    A tale of two unmanged riparian forests
    Pub No: 2282

    Rapp, Valerie, Carey, Andrew, Spies, Thomas, Franklin, Jerry 2002
    Restoring complexity: second-growth forests and habitat diversity
    Pub No: 3108

    Rapp, Valerie, Spies, Thomas, Swanson, Fred, Cissel, John 2002
    Dynamic landscape management
    Pub No: 3208

    Rapp, Valerie, Spies, Tom 2003
    New findings about old-growth forests
    Pub No: 3648

    Ripple, William J., Bradshaw, G. A., Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Measuring forest landscape patterns in the Cascade Range of Oregon
    Pub No: 1228

    Schrader, Barbara A., Spies, Thomas A. 1998
    Invasion of Douglas-fir forests by western hemlock regeneration: establishment and growth rates in coastal Oregon [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2539

    Seidl, Rupert, Rammer, Werner, Scheller, Robert M., Spies, Thomas A. 2012
    An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics
    Pub No: 4649

    Seidl, Rupert, Spies, Thomas A., Rammer, Werner., Steel, E. Ashley., Pabst, Robert. J., Olsen, Keith 2012
    Multi-scale Drivers of Spatial Variation in Old-Growth Forest Carbon Density Disentangled with Lidar and an Individual-Based Landscape Model
    Pub No: 4792

    Sharik, Terry L., Adair, William, Baker, Fred A., Battaglia, Michael, Comfort, Emily J., D’Amato, Anthony W., Delong, Craig, DeRose, R. Justin, Ducey, Mark J., Harmon, Mark, Levy, Louise, Logan, Jesse A., O’Brien, Joseph, Palik, Brian J., Roberts, Scott 2010
    Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests
    Pub No: 4588

    Sheridan, Chris D., Spies, Thomas A. 2005
    Vegetation-environment relationships in zero-order basins in coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 3960

    Spies, T. A. 1991
    Response of coniferous ecosystems to tree-fall gaps
    Pub No: 1225

    Spies, T. A. 2000
    The struggle to integrate science and policy at regional scales: lessons from the Pacific Northwest [Abstract]
    Pub No: 962

    Spies, T. A., Hemstrom, M. A., Plumley, H., Palmer, C. J. 1999
    Evaluation of a regional plan for monitoring vegetation and its potential for integrating habitat information for multiple species [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2687

    Spies, T. A., Miller, J. D., Buchanan, J. B. 2009
    Underestimating risks to the northern spotted owl in fire-prone forests: response to Hanson et al.
    Pub No: 4615

    Spies, T. A., Pabst, R. J., Gray, A. N. 1999
    Shrub and herb community responses to experimental canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2691

    Spies, Thomas 1997
    Forest stand structure, composition, and function
    Pub No: 2332

    Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature and old-growth Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon and Washington
    Pub No: 1245

    Spies, Thomas A. 1991
    Current knowledge of old growth in the Douglas-fir region of western North America
    Pub No: 1220

    Spies, Thomas A. 1994
    Ecological perspective: the nature of mature and old-growth forest ecosystems
    Pub No: 1803

    Spies, Thomas A. 1996
    Scientists in the wilderness: review of 'Wild forests: conservation biology and public policy,' by William S. Alverson, Walter Kuhlman, and Donald M. Waller
    Pub No: 2271

    Spies, Thomas A. 1998
    Forest structure: a key to the ecosystem
    Pub No: 2564

    Spies, Thomas A. 2004
    Ecological concepts and diversity of old-growth forests
    Pub No: 3691

    Spies, Thomas A. 2004
    Landscape assessment in a multiownership province
    Pub No: 3770

    Spies, Thomas A. 2005
    Scaling up from stands to landscapes
    Pub No: 3818

    Spies, Thomas A. 2006
    Maintaining old-growth forests
    Pub No: 4083

    Spies, Thomas A. 2009
    The science of old growth, or a journey into wonderland
    Pub No: 4366

    Spies, Thomas A., Barnes, Burton 1985
    Ecological species groups of upland northern hardwood--hemlock forest ecosystems of the Sylvania Recreation Area, Upper Peninsula, Michigan
    Pub No: 735

    Spies, Thomas A., Barnes, Burton V. 1985
    A multifactor ecological classification of the northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems of Sylvania Recreation Area, Upper Peninsula, Michigan
    Pub No: 734

    Spies, Thomas A., Cline, Steven P. 1988
    Coarse woody debris in forests and plantations of coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 870

    Spies, Thomas A., Duncan, Sally L. 2009
    Old growth in a new world: a Pacific Northwest icon reexamined
    Pub No: 4364

    Spies, Thomas A., Duncan, Sally L. 2009
    Searching for old growth
    Pub No: 4365

    Spies, Thomas A., Duncan, Sally L., Johnson, K. Norman, Swanson, Frederick J., Lach, Denise 2009
    Conserving old growth in a new world
    Pub No: 4420

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F. 1988
    Old growth and forest dynamics in the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and Washington
    Pub No: 743

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F. 1989
    Gap characteristics and vegetation response in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest
    Pub No: 1007

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F. 1991
    The structure of natural young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir forests in Oregon and Washington
    Pub No: 1244

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F. 1996
    The diversity and maintenance of old-growth forests
    Pub No: 1414

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F., Klopsch, Mark 1990
    Canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Cascade Mountains
    Pub No: 1074

    Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F., Thomas, Ted B. 1988
    Coarse woody debris in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington
    Pub No: 763

    Spies, Thomas A., Giesen, Thomas W., Swanson, Frederick J., Franklin, Jerry F., Lach, Denise, Johnson, K. Norman 2010
    Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives
    Pub No: 4612

    Spies, Thomas A., Hemstrom, Miles A., Youngblood, Andrew, Hummel, Susan 2006
    Conserving old-growth forest diversity in disturbance-prone landscapes
    Pub No: 4085

    Spies, Thomas A., Hibbs, David E., Ohmann, Janet L., Reeves, Gordon H., Pabst, Robert J., Swanson, Frederick J., Whitlock, Cathy, Jones, Julia A., Wemple, Beverley C., Parendes, Laurie A., Schrader, Barbara A. 2002
    The ecological basis of forest ecosystem management in the Oregon Coast Range
    Pub No: 19

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman 2003
    The importance of scale in assessing the compatibility of forest commodities and biodiversity
    Pub No: 3643

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman 2005
    Biodiversity in multi-ownership landscapes
    Pub No: 4411

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman 2007
    Projecting forest policy and management effects across ownerships in coastal Oregon [Invited feature]
    Pub No: 4228

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman, Bettinger, Pete, McComb, William C., Ohmann, Janet L., Reeves, Gordon H. 2002
    Challenges to integrating wood production, biodiversity, and other socioeconomic values at broad scales: an example from coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 3080

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman, Burnett, Kelly M., Ohmann, Janet L., McComb, Brenda C., Reeves, Gordon H., Bettinger, Pete, Kline, Jeffrey D., Garber-Yonts, Brian 2007
    Cumulative ecological and socioeconomic effects of forest policies in coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 3841

    Spies, Thomas A., Johnson, K. Norman, Reeves, Gordon, Bettinger, Pete, McGrath, Michael T., Pabst, Robert, Burnett, Kelly, Olsen, Keith 2002
    An evaluation of tradeoffs between wood production and ecological integrity in the Oregon Coast Range
    Pub No: 3079

    Spies, Thomas A., Martin, Jon R. 2006
    Monitoring late-successional forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.
    Pub No: 4096

    Spies, Thomas A., McComb, Brenda C., Kennedy, Rebecca S. H., McGrath, Michael T., Olsen, Keith, Pabst, Robert J. 2007
    Potential effects of forest policies on terrestrial biodiversity in a multi-ownership province
    Pub No: 3835

    Spies, Thomas A., Reeves, Gordon H., Burnett, Kelly M., McComb, William C., Johnson, K. Norman, Grant, Gordon, Ohmann, Janet L., Garman, Steve L., Bettinger, Pete 2002
    Assessing the ecological consequences of forest policies in a multi-ownership province in Oregon
    Pub No: 2865

    Spies, Thomas A., Ripple, William J., Bradshaw, G. A. 1994
    Dynamics and pattern of a managed coniferous forest landscape in Oregon
    Pub No: 1275

    Spies, Thomas A., Swanson, Frederick J. 2000
    The struggle to deal with landscapes
    Pub No: 2852

    Spies, Thomas A., Tappeiner, John, Pojar, Jim, Coates, Dave 1991
    Trends in ecosystem management at the stand level
    Pub No: 1280

    Spies, Thomas A., Turner, Monica G. 1999
    Dynamic forest mosaics
    Pub No: 2479

    Spies, Thomas A., Vogt, Kristiina A., Franklin, Jerry F., Van Pelt, Robert 1990
    Above- and below-ground response of coniferous ecosystems to tree-fall gaps
    Pub No: 1161

    Spies, Tom, Cohen, Warren B. 1992
    An index of canopy height diversity
    Pub No: 1407

    Spies, Tom, Reed, Mark 1990
    Forest fragmentation: issues and implications
    Pub No: 1544

    Stanfield, Brooks J., Bliss, John C., Spies, Thomas A. 2002
    Land ownership and landscape structure: a spatial analysis of sixty-six Oregon (USA) Coast Range watersheds
    Pub No: 2811

    Tappeiner, John C., Huffman, David, Marshall, David, Spies, Thomas A., Bailey, John D. 1997
    Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon
    Pub No: 2329

    Tepley, Alan J., Swanson, Frederick J., Spies, Thomas A. 2013
    Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA
    Pub No: 4839

    Theobald, David M., Spies, Thomas, Kline, Jeff, Maxwell, Bruce, Hobbs, N. T., Dale, Virginia H. 2005
    Ecological support for rural land-use planning
    Pub No: 3815

    Thompson, Jonathan R., Johnson, K. Norman, Lennette, Marie, Spies, Thomas A., Bettinger, Pete 2006
    Historical disturbance regimes as a reference for forest policy in a multiowner province: a simulation experiment
    Pub No: 4060

    Thompson, Jonathan R., Spies, Thomas A. 2009
    Vegetation and weather explain variation in crown damage within a large mixed-severity wildfire
    Pub No: 4445

    Thompson, Jonathan R., Spies, Thomas A., Ganio, Lisa M. 2007
    Reburn severity in managed and unmanaged vegetation in a large wildfire
    Pub No: 4171

    Thompson, Jonathan R., Spies, Thomas A., Olsen, Keith A. 2011
    Canopy damage to conifer plantations within a large mixed-severity wildfire varies with stand age
    Pub No: 4663

    Thompson, Jonathan R., Wiek, Arnim, Swanson, Frederick J., Carpenter, Stephen R., Fresco, Nancy, Hollingsworth, Teresa, Spies, Thomas A., Foster, David R. 2012
    Scenario studies as a synthetic and integrative research activity for Long-Term Ecological Research
    Pub No: 4669

    Thompson, Jonathan, Spies, Tom, Ohmann, Janet, Burnett, Kelly, Reeves, Gordon, Kline, Jeff 2005
    Forest biodiversity policies: Where are they leading us? Are we going where we expected to go?
    Pub No: 4029

    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 2000
    Changing the way we learn: CLAMS and the future of land use [Brochure]
    Pub No: 2776

    Van Pelt, Robert, Spies, Thomas A., Franklin, Jerry F. 1992
    Disturbance succession and species interactions around canopy gaps in old-growth Douglas-fir forests
    Pub No: 1403

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A. 1999
    Riparian and hillslope vegetation patterns in a coastal Oregon wilderness [Abstract]
    Pub No: 2621

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A. 2001
    Influences of environment and disturbance on forest patterns in coastal Oregon watersheds
    Pub No: 2764

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A. 2001
    Modeling landscape patterns of understory tree regeneration in the Pacific Northwest, USA
    Pub No: 2765

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A. 2002
    Landscape- vs gap-level controls on the abundance of a fire-sensitive, late-successional tree species
    Pub No: 3219

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A., Long, Colin J., Whitlock, Cathy 2000
    Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon Coast Range
    Pub No: 2592

    Wimberly, Michael C., Spies, Thomas A., Nonaka, Etsuko 2004
    Using criteria based on the natural fire regime to evaluate forest management in the Oregon Coast Range of the United States
    Pub No: 4135

    Zald, Harold S. J., Spies, Thomas A., Huso, Manuela, Gatziolis, Demetrios 2012
    Climatic, landform, microtopographic, and overstory canopy controls of tree invasion in a subalpine meadow landscape, Oregon Cascades, USA
    Pub No: 4662